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Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Why Pattiseema Project?

Annually, approximately 3000 TMC of Godavari river water is wasted into the Bay of Bengal. In a bid to direct that water to arid regions in Rayalaseema, CBN conceived the idea of Pattiseema project.

Image courtesy: South Report

The Pattiseema lift irrigation project would lift the surplus flooding water from river godavari into the Right Canal of Polavaram which is nearly complete. Under the Bachawat tribunal and inter-state agreement, 80 tmc of water can be diverted from River Godavari to River Krishna.

 The water from Pattiseema project will travel 160 kms. and will join River Krishna at Vijayawada in the up waters of Prakasam barrage. Water will then be supplied to the Rayalaseema through Pothireddypadu head regulator for its Irrigational and Domestic needs making it a drought free region.

Watch the video to learn more about the project…

Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Difference between milk storage in the US & India

Redditor asks about difference between milk storage in the US & India

My friend in US says they buy big bottles of milk and use it over weeks. I'm from India and we buy milk in pouches. It gets stale in 2-3 days. How does milk in US stays fresh for weeks? "

Then an Engineer who designs Dairy Equipment and has specifically studied milk distribution in India showed up on the thread and he explained the difference between milk storage in the US & India. Here is the Answer:-

The vast majority of Indian milk distribution is usually carried out at "ambient temperature" meaning it isn't cooled in any way, and isn't distributed in pouches.

Usually, it takes about 4 hours for milk to be transported to your doodhwallas (milk delivery people), who then add water to it, and sell it on to their customers. Average time for milk to go from cow to the customers is 6 hours. By most dairy standards, this milk is already unfit for human consumption.

Customers in India usually know that their milk is mixed with water, and are happy about it because the day's milk is boiled before each use. At the end of the day in the average household, the last bit of milk has been boiled about 4-5 times. It's used to make paneer and ghee

By this time, the milk has a slightly burned/sugary taste, and is a little brown in color.

The milk that IS distributed in pouches only counts for about 15% of milk in India. From experience, I can tell you that finding a "clean" dairy is rare (the cleaning chemicals are not cheap), and that the pasteurization process used isn't always as good as it can be. Also... the distribution of the pasteurised packs is Ambient temperature again. This gives the milk a good head-start on the way to "going off".

At this point, It is important to understand what Pasteurization does.... it kills active bacteria - stuff that damages the milk, and eventually takes over the milk causing it to "spoil" and "go off". Taste is important too. Pasturised milk tastes very like milk from a cow. Approximately 10% of Indian milk is buffalo milk. This stuff is hard to deal with, and the pasteurization process is less reliable. Pasteurization does NOT kill the bacterial spores. These are like bacteria "seeds", and will produce more bacteria if the conditions are right. In India, the conditions are nearly always right.

The alternative is UHT treatment. "Ultra High Temperature" pasteurization is a very precise process that isn't used much at all in India, mostly because it "tastes wrong" and is very very white. both the color and taste are not trusted by the average Indian. If you tell someone that the milk will last in the package "for over a year" they usually assume that there are nasty chemicals in it.

UHT treatment - very importantly - kills the spores. If you then put your milk in the right kind of container, it will last for a very very long time.

For Indian customers, Taste is very important. Also, Tradition is very important. You have a trusted doodhwalla, you're going to get your milk from him. Daily.

IF you're a your "new generation" Indian, chances are you buy your milk in a plastic pouch and put it in the fridge. The problem is, your pasturised milk has already had plenty of opportunities for the spores to produce bacteria, and your pouched milk is a ticking clock.

The Abrams that was destroyed by the Houthi rebels

It was part of a Saudi-led ground operation in Yemen, involving US-made Abrams M1 tanks and other armored vehicles.

A video shows what are said to be Houthi rebels in Yemen using old Soviet-designed Fagot anti-tank guided missiles to destroy American-made, Saudi Arabian-owned and operated Abrams M1 MBT.

A direct hit by a Fagot missile just below the M1’s turret led to the detonation of the tank’s ordnance payload stored in the turret’s back. This is the weakest spot of America’s main battle tank, which leaves the crew with virtually no chance of survival.

The Fagot antitank missile system entered operational service in 1970. Its missile uses a 2.5 kg High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) warhead which can penetrate up to 600 mm of conventional steel armor and has an effective range of up to 2,500 m through the use of an improved solid propellant sustainer rocket motor and lengthened guidance wire.