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Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Difference between milk storage in the US & India

Redditor asks about difference between milk storage in the US & India

My friend in US says they buy big bottles of milk and use it over weeks. I'm from India and we buy milk in pouches. It gets stale in 2-3 days. How does milk in US stays fresh for weeks? "

Then an Engineer who designs Dairy Equipment and has specifically studied milk distribution in India showed up on the thread and he explained the difference between milk storage in the US & India. Here is the Answer:-

The vast majority of Indian milk distribution is usually carried out at "ambient temperature" meaning it isn't cooled in any way, and isn't distributed in pouches.

Usually, it takes about 4 hours for milk to be transported to your doodhwallas (milk delivery people), who then add water to it, and sell it on to their customers. Average time for milk to go from cow to the customers is 6 hours. By most dairy standards, this milk is already unfit for human consumption.

Customers in India usually know that their milk is mixed with water, and are happy about it because the day's milk is boiled before each use. At the end of the day in the average household, the last bit of milk has been boiled about 4-5 times. It's used to make paneer and ghee

By this time, the milk has a slightly burned/sugary taste, and is a little brown in color.

The milk that IS distributed in pouches only counts for about 15% of milk in India. From experience, I can tell you that finding a "clean" dairy is rare (the cleaning chemicals are not cheap), and that the pasteurization process used isn't always as good as it can be. Also... the distribution of the pasteurised packs is Ambient temperature again. This gives the milk a good head-start on the way to "going off".

At this point, It is important to understand what Pasteurization does.... it kills active bacteria - stuff that damages the milk, and eventually takes over the milk causing it to "spoil" and "go off". Taste is important too. Pasturised milk tastes very like milk from a cow. Approximately 10% of Indian milk is buffalo milk. This stuff is hard to deal with, and the pasteurization process is less reliable. Pasteurization does NOT kill the bacterial spores. These are like bacteria "seeds", and will produce more bacteria if the conditions are right. In India, the conditions are nearly always right.

The alternative is UHT treatment. "Ultra High Temperature" pasteurization is a very precise process that isn't used much at all in India, mostly because it "tastes wrong" and is very very white. both the color and taste are not trusted by the average Indian. If you tell someone that the milk will last in the package "for over a year" they usually assume that there are nasty chemicals in it.

UHT treatment - very importantly - kills the spores. If you then put your milk in the right kind of container, it will last for a very very long time.

For Indian customers, Taste is very important. Also, Tradition is very important. You have a trusted doodhwalla, you're going to get your milk from him. Daily.

IF you're a your "new generation" Indian, chances are you buy your milk in a plastic pouch and put it in the fridge. The problem is, your pasturised milk has already had plenty of opportunities for the spores to produce bacteria, and your pouched milk is a ticking clock.

The Abrams that was destroyed by the Houthi rebels

It was part of a Saudi-led ground operation in Yemen, involving US-made Abrams M1 tanks and other armored vehicles.

A video shows what are said to be Houthi rebels in Yemen using old Soviet-designed Fagot anti-tank guided missiles to destroy American-made, Saudi Arabian-owned and operated Abrams M1 MBT.

A direct hit by a Fagot missile just below the M1’s turret led to the detonation of the tank’s ordnance payload stored in the turret’s back. This is the weakest spot of America’s main battle tank, which leaves the crew with virtually no chance of survival.

The Fagot antitank missile system entered operational service in 1970. Its missile uses a 2.5 kg High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) warhead which can penetrate up to 600 mm of conventional steel armor and has an effective range of up to 2,500 m through the use of an improved solid propellant sustainer rocket motor and lengthened guidance wire.

Thursday, August 27, 2015

What is GST (Goods and Service Tax)?

The Goods and Service Tax Bill or GST Bill, officially known as The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Second Amendment) Bill, 2014, proposes a national Value added Tax to be implemented in India from April 2016. "Goods and Services Tax" would be a comprehensive indirect tax on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services throughout India, to replace taxes levied by the Central and State governments. GST would be levied and collected at each stage of sale or purchase of goods or services based on the input tax credit method, irrespective of State.

Image courtesy: Kashmir Reader

India has a dual tax system for taxation of Goods And Services. The tax system is described by Central Taxes and State Taxes, which may be further subdivided into Excise Duty, Service Tax, VAT and Customs Duty. In 2005 VAT was introduced for intra-state transactions, using the input tax credit principle.

Until a few years ago, there were only three countries that did not have GST - India, US and Brazil. Brazil has it now. So that leaves US and India.

Current status of taxation in India:

Every state has its own tax rate.

  • Rather than say one rate- sales tax of x% on all goods, literally sales tax on every product is different.This can lead to corrupt lobbying by companies.
  • Unlike other countries, Indian states also impose taxes based on the manufacturing location rather than point of sale. This introduces big distortion. When states promise 5 years tax free status to new factories, this is what they mean. Indian mid-size companies move their entire factories to take advantage of this. Some of my friends have done that. This doesn't lead to any growth, just a movement of factories from one state to another every five years.
  • There is an entry tax at every state. If you have travelled by road in India, you would have noticed a long line of trucks at every state border (for Delhiites - Delhi-Faridabad border). The truckers spend hours and sometimes days in that line to pay entry tax. This entry tax is based on the value of the load they are carrying. Needless to say, it adds a lot of scope of bribing and also inefficiency.Another point - Say you had a truck load of 1cr and a working loan at 13% to finance it until you get paid by the buyer. If because of bad roads and entry tax, it takes you 7 days to transport the goods, you pay an interest of Rs. 27,083 for that week. Instead, if you had transported that good in just one day, you would have paid only Rs. 3869 in interest. So you see, in spite of having low salaries, how expensive India becomes.
  • All these taxes are incredible easy to fudge. India is a cash economy. You can choose not to declare sales and not pay any sales tax. You can fudge the value of the truck load and pay lesser entry tax. You can make false receipts of goods that you sell and thus show an inflated cost of business.
  • There is cascading of taxes. Say you have your factory in Gujrat and you make bicycles and your cost of manufacturing was Rs. 100. And you paid a excise tax(manufacturing tax) of 10%. So your cost is now Rs. 110. You load it on the truck and transport it to WB. Your truck moves through maybe five states and you pay an entry tax of 5% at every state border. Now, your cost is Rs. 135 plus transportation cost. You sell it to a buyer in WB at some profit for say Rs. 160. The retailer adds his own profit and sells it to consumer at Rs. 180. The consumer pays a 9% sales tax so his cost is Rs. 196.20. So you see, the consumer pays almost double the cost of manufacturing because we keep paying taxes on previous taxes.
  • In the above example of making bicycles, I said your manufacturing cost was Rs. 100. Lets analyze this cost. You probably bought tyres,, handles, frames,break-pads from someone else. All of those factories also paid excise tax, entry tax etc. Lets say they paid Rs. 20 in all taxes. When you pay taxes on Rs. 100 of your manufacturing cost, you are also paying tax on Rs. 20 tax that were paid by your suppliers.This cascading tax has a debilitating effect on manufacturing by increasing your cost.
  • It's the absence of these obstacles and inefficiencies that makes west and China competitive in manufacturing compared to India despite their higher salaries. In any factory, whether east or west, salary is a small part of manufacturing cost.
image courtesy: India Briefing

How does GST solve all this?

  • It will reduce the million different tax rates(based on products and states) to just three - based on essential, neutral and luxury goods. With one stroke of pen, you increase efficiency (no more waiting at state borders,simple tax planning) and corruption (no more lobbying to decrease tax rates on just your product) and no more relocation of factories every five years just to take advantage of temporary tax reliefs.
  • GST avoids cascading tax by taxing only value-add and will help India in becoming low-cost economy. What does value-add mean? In my previous example, you paid a 10% excise tax. So, if your manufacturing cost was Rs. 100, you paid Rs. 10 tax on it. But say, your input cost was Rs. 90. That means the value you added was Rs. 10. Your tax under GST regime may be 30% on this value add, which is Rs. 3 in this example. A retailer will not charge you a sales tax of 10% on the price but rather, say 20% on value added. So if a retailer gets a phone at Rs. 10,000 and sells it for Rs. 11,000, he charges you 20% of Rs. 1000 and not 10% of Rs. 10,000. Thus GST helps in making an economy low cost.
  • Under sales/excise tax, you declare your sales and manufacturing to pay taxes. Under GST, you pay estimated taxes in advance and then get a refund from the govt. based on your value add. So you have to declare your input costs to the govt. These input costs will be verified against the receipts from your supplier. This induces honesty and not fake receipts. How? The higher your input costs, the less your value-add and hence you pay low taxes. Thus you have an incentive to ask your supplier to inflate the bills. Under current system of Sales/Excise tax, its done by every company in India to reduce their profits on paper. Under GST, your suppler will refuse to inflate their bills because that increases their value-add and thus the tax that you save, will end up being paid by your supplier. Thus GST forces you to be honest.
  • GST increases tax revenue of the Govt. by forcing honesty in tax declaration and plugging major loopholes. At the same time, it reduces the end price of goods to the consumers. Thus increased consumption leads to more jobs and more tax collection leads to more infrastructure creation. It sets a virtuous cycle of growth.


1) Wiki
2) Reddit

Thursday, August 14, 2014

Test post

I am writing this post in my new xiaomi MI 3 mobile .. I just downloaded blogger android app and checking its functionality .... Its fantastic I am loving it ...

Thursday, July 3, 2014

Five NATO Weapons of War Russia Should Fear

If tensions should spiral out of control, here's what Moscow should be concerned about.

When it comes to a potential war between NATO and Russia over the Ukraine or some other hotspot, everyone's attention is focused on the capabilities of U.S. versus Russian weapons. The U.S. is only one member of NATO, and it happens to be one of the members that isn't even on the European continent. Should NATO and Russia come to blows, it is certain that European forces will go into battle alongside--perhaps--American troops.

If this scenario happens, here are five NATO weapons Russia should fear:

Britain's Challenger 2 tank:

Backbone of the UK's tank force, the Challenger 2 would be in the forefront should Britain commit heavy armor to a European conflict against Russia.

The Challenger 2 is heavily protected with Dorchester (another name for Chobham armor) and armed with a 120-millimeter cannon. It has an off-road speed of about 25 miles per hour.

Given that the most advanced tanks in the world haven't really faced each other (the First Gulf War was 25 years ago, and even Israel hasn't fought a tank battle against Russian-made armor in more than 30 years), predicting how a Challenger 2 would fare against Russian tanks would be conjecture. Weighing in at 63 tons, the Challenger 2 is certainly heavier than the various models of the 40- to 50-ton T-72s that Russia fields, including the T-72B3 and the T-90.

What this means in terms of combat performance is unclear. What is clear that should British and Russian forces come to blows, Russia would be facing a well-armed, well-armored and sophisticated main battle tank.

But as usual, the biggest enemy of the British military is Her Majesty's Treasury. Budget cuts compelled Britain to slash its tank force by 40 percent in 2010, leaving Britain with just 227 Challenger 2s. Plans to modernize the Challenger 2 and extend its lifespan, including possibly replacing its rifled cannon with a smoothbore model, are up in the air.

Russia may end up confronting deadly British tanks, but not very many.

Germany's Type 212 submarine:

If diesel submarines scare the heck out of the U.S. Navy, the Russian Navy can't be looking forward to dealing with Germany's ultra-quiet Type 212 sub.

The 1,500-ton Type 212 has an air-independent propulsion (AIP) system that uses hydrogen-oxygen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cells, which enable the sub to remain submerged for long periods. While German U-boat in World War II moved at a crawl while submerged, the Type 212 travels underwater at a remarkable 20 knots.

The Type 212 is armed with wire-guided DM2A4 torpedoes, as well as WASS 184 and Blackshark torpedoes. It is scheduled to be equipped with IDAS missiles, fired from the sub's torpedo tubes that can hit air, land or sea targets. 

It remains to be seen how much effect German subs would have on a conflict with Russia: Russia's Crimea and Ukraine shows of force have been more toward the Black Sea than the Baltic. But should Russia be tempted to go after the Baltic States or Poland, and use its navy in the process, the Type 212s would be a force to be reckoned with.

Eurofighter Typhoon

Comparisons of NATO and Russian airpower inevitably degenerate into "my F-22 is better than your Su-35." However, since only the U.S. uses the F-22, it seems more probable that Russian pilots would be facing Typhoons instead of Raptors.

The Typhoon is used by the German and British air forces, which are the NATO members more likely to encounter the Russians in Eastern Europe, and the Italian and Spanish air forces, which are not. Though it is has some stealth features, the Typhoon is more of a dogfighter than the F-22.

Armed with a 27-millimeter cannon and a variety of missiles, including the Sidewinder, AMRAAM and Meteor for air-to-air combat and Taurus and Storm Shadow for air-to-ground targets, the Eurofighter should prove a capable opponent. Pitting it against highly maneuverable Russian fighters such as the Su-35 would make for an interesting dogfight.

Eurocopter Tiger

Smaller than the U.S. and British AH-64 Apache and about half the weight, the Eurocopter Tiger is a Franco-German project that entered service in 1991. It is used by France, Germany and Italy as well as Australia.

With a speed of about 181 miles per hour, various versions of the Tiger are armed with Hellfire, Spike, PARS 3 and HOT 3 anti-tank missiles, Mistral air-to-air missiles, and air-to-ground rockets.

The Tiger has seen limited combat during French and German operations in Afghanistan and Libya. But should hostilities erupt between NATO and Russia, the Tiger will be stalking Russian tanks.

Israel's Spike Missile

Why is an Israeli weapon on a list of deadly NATO hardware? Because the Spike is used by numerous NATO members, including Belgium, Britain, Croatia, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.

The 31-pound Spike is a fiber-optic wire-guided anti-tank missile with a tandem warhead that uses two shaped charges to first detonate a tank's reactive armor, and then penetrate the vehicle's own armor. Available in short, medium and long-range and extended range versions, the various Spikes can hit targets at ranges from 800 meters to 8 kilometers.

The Russians have had much experience in pitting their tanks against Israeli weapons, usually with unfavorable results. A NATO-Russia conflict would test whether this still holds true.